Testing has shown the unique NE-1 Rocket will let anyone put payloads into space on a modest budget. See for yourself!
Testing has shown the unique NE-1 Rocket will let anyone put payloads into space on a modest budget. See for yourself!
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If you are excited about space, but think it is too far away, let us help. The NE-1 Rocket is bringing space within reach of people like you. A unique combination of technologies allow the NE-1 Rocket to launch payloads at prices anyone can afford. Space is the final frontier, and it should be available to everyone, not just big corporations.
The core technologies of the NE-1 have already been proven through testing and advanced simulations. The design is ready, and much of the hardware is already here. Now we just need your help (and your payloads) to make it all come together.
The low-cost, reusable NE-1 rocket will boost payloads of 5kg on a sub-orbital trajectory to an altitude above 100km. Near apogee the payload will experience around 3 minutes of free fall while being exposed to the hard vacuum and radiation above the earth’s atmosphere. Upon re-entering the atmosphere parachutes will deploy and allow for recovery of the payload and rocket. (Find out more at www.rocketlaunchservice.com)
The NE-1 is just the first step into a larger universe. As a sub-orbital rocket, it will provide the foundation needed to build the larger NE-2 orbital vehicle later on. Though the NE-2 is currently beyond the scope of this Kickstarter project, the NE-1 Rocket team is dedicated to continuing the development of these technologies and ultimately providing orbital launch services.
The current aerospace climate in the US is shifting heavily towards the privatization of space. While opinions and results of this change are mixed, it has succeeded in pointing out that small and nimble private companies can achieve dramatic results using a fraction of the resources needed by government programs or the giant aerospace corporations that have led the field in the past. That said, the strategy for making the NE-1 Rocket is easy: keep it small, and keep it simple. Once the rocket is built, the cost of a launch is expected to be around $5,000/kg, much less than commercially available launch services.
Public interest in space has waxed and waned over the years, partly because there has always been a gap between the dream of space flight and what people think is personally attainable. This rocket will help to narrow that gap by showing enthusiast everywhere that making a real launch vehicle doesn't have to be difficult or expensive.
It is important to keep the rocket design simple and inexpensive. Three strategies will be employed to do this. The rocket will be reusable. It will have self-pressurizing propellants. It will have a self-cooling chamber. Making the rocket reusable seems like an obvious choice, but often enough the cost of refurbishing a rocket after a flight is prohibitive. Damage to the airframe or propellant tanks from landing, damage to the engine from heating and cooling, and wear and tear on propellant pumps all have to be assessed and repaired. Some of these problems can be overcome by reducing the impact velocity with larger parachutes, making structures more robust, or cheaper and easily replaceable.
A Hot New Fuel
Reducing wear on the propulsion system brings us to the next strategy for simplicity: Self-pressurizing liquid propellants. Self-pressurizing just means that a liquid propellant sitting in a tank will naturally try to vaporize until a certain pressure is reached. Using self-pressurizing propellants removes the need for complicated and expensive turbo-pumps. For this rocket, nitrous oxide will be used as the oxidizer. At room temperature the vapor pressure of nitrous oxide is around 750psi, so in a tank it will boil until that pressure is reached. There are few fuel options that will self-pressurize to a high enough pressure for this engine, so a novel fuel was developed to make it possible. The NE-1’s new formula is quite cheap and can be customized to any desired tank pressure. Though having high propellant tank pressures removes the need for turbo-pumps, it does make the tanks heavier. On larger rockets this makes more of a difference because the mass of a tank required to hold a given pressure increases with the cube of the tank radius. In this case the savings from a simpler system far outweighs the cost of lifting the heavier tank. Once again being small has its advantages. In addition, the higher pressure tank is also more durable during landing.
A Cool New Combustion Chamber
The final method for reducing complexity is an up-and-coming chamber cooling method. Typical rocket engines require that the combustion chamber walls be cooled to prevent the walls from melting. This is usually done by constructing the chamber with an array of small channels lining it all the way around. One of the propellants flows through the channels and removes heat from the wall. Making a chamber like this is quite expensive and a significant amount of pressure can be wasted while passing through the cooling channels. Furthermore, the interior surface of the wall still becomes hot, while the outside remains cool causing thermal stresses to push and pull at the wall material and weaken or crack it over time.
Instead of cooling channels, the NE-1 will use the patented Cold Wall Vortex flow field developed by ORBITEC. This technology uses a novel propellant injection scheme to insulate the walls from the combustion products, thus preventing them from ever heating up. We can simultaneously remove the complex and costly cooling channels while reducing the thermal wear and tear on the combustion chamber.
Proving the Design
Several new technologies are incorporated into the NE-1. While each is well characterized by itself, testing all the parts together is an important step in the design process. A half-scale prototype of the rocket engine and all the test hardware was built to ensure the feasibility of the project. The system includes the rocket engine, home-made throttleable servo valves for both propellants, and the complete propellant feed system. An in-house custom designed micro-controller board runs all of the electronics and records data. It uses an ATMEL controller to operate the two servo valves and records data from 5 pressure transducers, 4 thermocouples, and 3 load cells.
The first tests were performed in late May at the large scale testing facility operated by Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC) at the decommissioned Badger Army Ammunition Plant in Baraboo, Wisconsin. So far valve sizing on the available nitrous oxide bottles has limited tests to 1/5th of the normal flow rate. This has resulted in sub-optimal performance and unsteady combustion, but some important data has been collected.
One early question was whether the engine could be safely ignited externally with a remotely triggered magnesium flare. It was found that flare ignition is fairly reliable. Also importantly, when the flame front reaches the interior of the chamber where a premix of fuel and oxidizer are waiting, it does not cause a detonation.
Another concern was how the Cold Wall Vortex flow pattern would work in this chamber configuration with these propellants. If the flow field collapsed or failed to cover the entire chamber wall, the aluminum would quickly melt. This concern has been easily dispelled after watching several tests on a thermal imaging camera. During each test the chamber wall cools significantly rather than heating up.
Finally, initial estimates of chamber pressure are close to experimental values. This data is not as definitive as I would like since the flow rates are too low to allow for stable combustion. However, during the periods of stability the engine performance is consistent with theory.
With sufficient support, the NE-1 rocket and it's payload will be launched into space. Two locations are under consideration for the launch. Keeping operations local would dramatically reduce travel costs, so the first choice is Spaceport Sheboygan located by Lake Michigan in Wisconsin. Though no suitable facility currently exists for a rocket of this size, with support it may be possible to establish some new capabilities. The second launch location is the Mojave Air and Space Port in California. They have been very helpful with the FAA requirements for launch clearance and the price for leasing a launch site is very reasonable. The down side is that California is a long way from Wisconsin. The rocket will have to be shipped and the launch team will have drive out there with all of the gear.
A substantial amount of planning and work has already gone into this project to make sure the goals are attainable. Advance trajectory simulations have been written and run to predict altitude. All of the components have been sized, and the entire rocket has been fully modeled in CAD software. The prototype NE-1 was tested to study ignition, throttling, and engine performance. But never fear! There is plenty left to do, and your contributions will make it possible. Here is what has to get done:
- Upgrade test hardware to allow full flow rates
- Complete testing of prototype rocket engine to determine performance
- Complete trajectory simulations using new performance data
- Complete design of final rocket
- Design upgraded control and data acquisition electronics
- Purchase components and propellants
- Fabricate upgraded control and data acquisition electronics
- Fabricate and assemble structure, tanks, plumbing, and rocket engine
- Test engine performance
- Fabricate airframe and launch structure
- Conduct complete safety analysis and flight plan
- Obtain FAA flight waiver
- Lease launch site from Mojove Air and Space Port
- Transport rocket, propellants, and personnel from Wisconsin to California launch site
Find out more at www.rocketlaunchservice.com
The Stretch Goals
Depending on how much money we raise there are some improvements to add to this plan. The first addition would be a second launch. In theory the rocket is designed to be recovered after a launch, then refitted with new fins, refueled, and launched again the next day. A demonstration of this capability would go a long way towards showing the world that big companies and big budgets aren’t necessary to get big results. To perform this feat a wide variety of spare parts will have to be available to ensure any damaged components can be replaced in the field. Additional work will determine how to identify what parts may need repair after a landing, and how to best replace them with as little disassembly as possible. Finally, the additional propellants for the second launch will have to be purchased and transported.
If even more funding is available it would be beneficial to iterate on the engine design and testing to improve the chance of a successful launch. There are many geometric factors that affect the performance and reliability of a rocket. While my experience in rocket design has allowed me to make a working prototype engine, different propellants and thrust levels all have their own needs. With the opportunity to make and test several engines I could improve engine performance and increase the reliability and final altitude of the rocket.
The NE-1 Rocket is just the first step. The conceptual NE-2 Rocket will build on the experience of the NE-1 and go into orbit. Though the NE-2 is not currently part of this Kickstarter project, if enough money is raised we will begin work on this vehicle ahead of schedule. The NE-2 will be designed with the same simple and cheap approach as the NE-1, and will launch between 5kg and 10kg into low earth orbit (LEO).
Risks and challenges
Plenty of challenges await. We have been developing this project for about a year and have encountered many of them already. Some challenges will continue and some will be new.
Planning how to safely use and test the rocket hardware is a challenge that will continue to be faced. This requires an understanding of how the hardware is supposed to work, and a lot of hard thinking about how it might fail. In many cases fail-safes can be put in place so that everything will shut down if a problem occurs. In other instances the best way to keep everyone safe is to do the tests remotely. In both cases it is important to have a safety plan in place to keep procedures safe and to safely deal with hazardous conditions.
Component testing is also very important. Each piece of the rocket has to be reliable or else bad things are likely to happen. In the prototype test program the bulk of the time went into debugging software and electronics. Even more time will be spend performing checkout tests on the flight components. Each component will be required to perform flawlessly when tested by itself and as a part of the entire system.
When the entire rocket is assembled, dry-runs (rocket tests that are identical to flight conditions but have no propellants) will be run to verify that the system works together. Then cold-flows (rocket tests that flow propellants, but are not ignited) will be performed before moving on to actual tests.
In addition to internal safety plans, an official flight and safety plan must be developed before obtaining a license from the FAA for launch. I will need to show that the risks involved in launching the rocket have been minimized and that there is no chance that it will fly off course and hurt anyone. There are several good references for developing these documents and the FAA has been quite responsive to my questions.
There are other practical considerations which may prove challenging during this project. I will have to find a suitable work space and assembly area for the vehicle. Some of this work will be done at ORBITEC along with the testing of the vehicle, so space may be available there. I also have a very large, unused garage that may be converted into a work area.
Along with size and space constraints comes the problem of transporting a 20ft rocket along with the necessary propellants from Wisconsin to California. This will pose a challenge, but should be overcome by a combination of renting a U-Haul trailer and UPS Freight shipping. Vendors for the nitrous oxide will have to be identified near the launch site to avoid legal and safety issues.Learn about accountability on Kickstarter
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