Full Metal Dalek -The only titanium robot Dalek in the world
Celebrate Doctor Who's 50th anniversary by helping to create the world's ONLY computer controlled full size titanium robot Dalek!
Full Metal Dalek -The only titanium robot Dalek in the world
Celebrate Doctor Who's 50th anniversary by helping to create the world's ONLY computer controlled full size titanium robot Dalek!
- Now with REAL alien technology - Thank you Geoff Notkin from Discovery TV's Meteorite Men for getting in touch! Now we have some TRULY out of this world components for making the controls and control systems out of!
- Now with REAL Dalek Eye technology - made by the same people that bring you the official BBC Eye Stalk app! www.eyestalk.co.uk - totally rewritten to suit our code! :D
- We now have the BEST laser experts in the world helping us out with a true skunkworks project.. Even I'm impressed and in awe! We now have a REAL laser gun that can actually start fires from quite a distance! Doctor Evil will be so jealous... Thank you Wicked Lasers, and welcome aboard chaps!
- NEW REWARD UNLOCKED: Ride in this Dalek for £50 from anywhere in the world - You only need a web browser! Free DVD of your time in the Dalek delivered to your door with FREE P&P too! Compatible with all major mobile devices and laptops.
- NEW REWARD UNLOCKED: Personalised thank you messages - Have your name read out by the Dalek itself! Complete with a FREE audio and video DVD - FREE P&P too!
- Now with ADDED COMPATIBILITY - ALL rewards where you can take control of the Dalek remotely and actually have a go yourself now works on every mobile device, not just Windows!
Welcome to our Kickstarter project! We are trying to make not only the worlds best Dalek, but THE worlds MOST exciting and technological Dalek to date, made in time to celebrate this Novembers 50th anniversary of Doctor Who. It will be made completely out of titanium (Robocop's blue armour) and crammed full of super high tech components, powerful computers, a heavy duty battlebot four wheel drive system that can move in ANY direction, a functioning laser gun from the amazing Wicked Lasers people that has the potential to start fires from quite a distance, it will use a Microsoft Kinect for its eyes and ears, use the Microsoft .Net Framework and SQL Server to control every part of the machine, and use REAL alien components in the form of meteorites from Discovery TV's Meteorite Men expert Geoff Notkin, who has kindly (and amazingly!) offered to donate some of his personal collection to our project for free because he likes it so much! These beautiful space rocks will be cut, polished and machined to fit into key parts of the Dalek, as well as being a main feature on the hand controls that will be used for people to physically control the Dalek when sitting inside of it. It's also possible to remotely pilot the Dalek over the internet from wherever you are in the world using your web browser, laptop or mobile phone too. If you're asking "why" we're making the worlds best Dalek, you've missed the point completely and should stop reading this and give yourself a Chinese burn.
Once complete, the finished full size, computer controlled titanium robot Dalek will be exhibited nationally and internationally to try and help inspire a younger generation of people to look further into Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. What's more is that this Dalek will have a certain degree of 'intelligence', so will be able to interact with crowds of people, maybe before they realise it's even there... I love engineering, this subject is very close to my heart, and while a lot more people are taking up performing arts or sport as a full time career these days, dancing or kicking a ball around will never really save peoples lives, nor have the potential or capability to advance our planet significantly from exactly where we are now. I hope I haven't just upset a few people with saying that, dancing and football are big parts of modern culture and were just an example, but it's true, the world needs more engineers - now more than it ever has done - and it really saddens me that fun science, technology and engineering projects are so under-represented at the moment, but maybe together we can do something about that. But only if we succeed.
- Celebrate this November's upcoming 50th Anniversary of Doctor Who by building not only the worlds best Dalek, but the worlds first (and only!) totally crowd funded FULL SIZE METAL ROBOT DALEK, made from aircraft grade Stainless Steel, but if the build material upgrade gets unlocked, we can make it completely out of TITANIUM!!
- Inspire people to take an interest into engineering - we need more engineers. Whether you're holding a spanner, carving metal or tapping keys on a keyboard - get involved! This Dalek won't be gathering dust in a private collection, I plan to exhibit it at as many places as possible.
- Make the Dalek remotely controllable from anywhere in the Universe (with an internet connection!) or by an operator sitting inside and driving it manually, aided by touchscreen monitors, 360 degree vision and two easy to use joysticks.
- Fully automate the Dalek using a small but high powered computer, motors, servos and sensors taken from a Microsoft Kinect - This robot will see people, track objects, and interact with the outside world in full 3D, and could easily follow routines or sets of instructions held inside it's own centrally hosted SQL Server database - With the ability to add more and more sensors as time goes by, the software and interaction possibilities are nearly endless!
- Provide a live 'Dalek Cam' of the workshop build process, accessible from any device that supports streaming video - Watch the build progress day by day, and as it happens!
- Reward each sponsor with something amazing and totally unique and wonderfully technological - If you donate $10 or more, a picture of you, as well as your full name, city and the country you live in will be burned by a high powered laser into a special 'commemorative plaque' made out of solid Titanium that will be mounted inside of the Dalek itself. Once the Dalek 'opens', the first thing anybody would see would be a wall of names and faces of the Doctor Who fans who made this project possible - A truly fitting reward that includes everyone that's helped the project spring to life!
- Build the project accurately using interesting and exciting materials, to within 0.25mm (or to within ten thousandths of an inch if you prefer Imperial measurements!)
- Document the whole process with videos and pictures and release the plans for free at the end. There's some great plans already out there, but none for a computerised robot Dalek made out of metal...
- Give it some really cool transport if funds allow - UNIT style!
- Include some Zombies somewhere - Optional.
Project History - How a childhood idea grew
Thinking back, it's hard to believe that it's thirty years since I first saw a Dalek on TV. I'd seen a real one at the Longleat Exhibition, home of Doctor Who's 20th Anniversary earlier the same year, but all I can remember was it scared me to tears, and running away from it, but actually seeing and hearing one in action was a day I remember quite vividly: It was Thursday the 25th November 1983 to be precise, during a live charity telethon appeal for 'Children In Need'. As part of the show, and as part of the 20th anniversary events, the BBC screened a special, feature length episode of 'The Five Doctors'. I still remember the feeling I got watching the Doctor and his companion being chased by a solitary Dalek around a maze of reflective walls, only to escape and outwit the amazing creature, triggering it's impending, self destructing and explosive demise.. As a six year old boy, from that moment on, I was in love.
I instantly became an even bigger Doctor Who fan, and spent most of my time trying to watch as many episodes as possible, but in those days, not everyone had televisions, let alone videos, so most of my early days years were spent listening to audio-only versions that were recorded onto cassette from a tape recorder placed next to the TV, as well as watching really bad quality VHS recordings that eventually wore out and broke, through watching them too much.
It's always been an ambition of mine to create a fan-art replica of my favourite alien villain, but back in the 1980's, all I could do is save my pocket money to buy more and more sketchbooks to draw them in, and to sit and wait for them to appear on TV next. As the years went by, my obsession grew deeper and deeper - apart from a brief period in 1989 when nearly all of my Dalek related thoughts were replaced with Batman and Batmobile thoughts - but that didn't last (when my home made Bat Belt broke and I fell out of a tree) and before long, I was back to running around the back garden in the cardboard Dalek covered in tin foil that me and my Mom made. I knew that one day, I would make my own Dalek, and when I did, it would be the best Dalek in the World, but until that day, I had a pretty good replacement, even though it leaked in the rain. I tried making a Cyberman costume, but it just wasn't the same.
The years spent dreaming paid off. As time went by, it turns out that the countless hours spent drawing Sci-Fi robots helped me realise what I'd like to do for a job. I'll never forget my Career Advisor sighing when she asked me what I'd like to do when I left school, my reply of 'special effects make up artist or robot maker' didn't go down too well, and it was quickly suggested that Engineering could be an interesting alternative, especially with the lack of any local companies that did anything special effects related at all.
Fast forward two decades - my cardboard companion is sadly long gone, and I had to find a way to direct my thoughts away from childhood dreams to the very adult reality of working life, but other than that, nothing's changed, I still want to build a Dalek.The Worlds best Dalek.
I've spent the last twenty years learning how to make one. My employers haven't realised it at the time, but I won't tell them if you don't. For the last ten years or so I've been mainly software based, designing and creating enterprise level applications for prestigious clients such as the NHS, Triumph Motorcycles and Jaguar Land Rover, but for the ten years before that I worked in prototype vehicle engineering for clients such as Rolls Royce, Jaguar (without Land Rover way back then), as well as making some very specific bits for Ford Motors, and a fair chunk of aerospace work too.
With my lifelong dream to build something this special, the necessary free time, skills and experience, I really believe that with your help, together we can make something truly amazing, and something that is a fitting, modern day technology tribute to, in my opinion, the best TV show ever created.
How you can help
Spread the word! The more people that hear about this project, the higher chance of success it has. If you'd like to donate to this project, there's some great and truly unique Backer Rewards to be had, but beware, numbers are limited and will not be extended!
Project Details - Technical Information
Following the lead set by some excellent Dalek building websites, this project will be fully documented and hosted on the project website for all to see once the project is complete. As this project is completely different from any other Dalek that's been put together (I hope!), it's only fair to repay the Dalek building community who've helped supply me with some great resources by making this data freely available to anyone who wants it. As we're building everything in special materials, adding quite a lot of special functionality and controlling everything with computers, the final documentation will be quite an interesting read!
If you can't or won't wait the three months or so that the project will take to complete, why not take advantage of the great value Backer Reward donation that would give you an 'Access All Areas' pass to the project website? Once logged in, you'll be able to see more even more high quality pictures of the build, updated several times every day, and 'One on One' video's where I'll post a few short clips of each component that's being worked on at the time... Amazing value, plus you can also get a picture of you, your name, city and country burnt onto the Daleks special internal 'Commemorative Plaque' by a high powered laser.. See the Backer Reward section for more details on both of these items!
Workshop Web Cam
For the duration of the project, you will be able to catch up with what I'm up to via a 'workshop cam' that will be set up, you've guessed it, in the main Dalek building workshop. This will be running 24hrs (even in the dark, please keep an eye out for burglars!) and you can log on from your PC or smartphone to see still images and short video clips created and uploaded each day, but if you'd like to see more action, live and in HD, this is very possible, so please have a look at the Backer Reward section for more details on this too.
Detail / Scope
The Dalek will be a full size replica, and very highly detailed. I'll also be adding a few nice touches like a computer controlled iris for the eye piece, full sound to light effects just like the ones you see on TV, and THE best Dalek laser you've ever seen! More details on each section are further down this page.
Sadly, I couldn't find an online supplier of Dalekanium anywhere :( But, everything you see will be made completely from Stainless Steel or Titanium, except for the bits that aren't supposed to be metallic, such as the eye lens, rubber plunger, and the lights that illuminate on the head etc.The main material choice is up to you guys, I'm itching to build it out of something as special as Titanium, so let's see what we can do!!!
The hard task of working out 'so, how big IS a Dalek?' has already been done many times over by members of the Dalek building community, the plans have been made public, and versions or revisions have been added as time goes by, and I doff my hat to them all for making such a great job of it all, the resources available truly are fantastic, but only if you want to make them out of wood or fibreglass, but the exterior dimensions, no matter what the material, will always be the same. Working with metal is much more difficult, and none of the build diaries that I've been reading recently are in any way suitable for crafting a precision Dalek out of Stainless Steel or Titanium, so everything that the project is doing is pretty much brand new territory.
Hopefully, a few weeks from now, the project will be successfully funded and I can start hammering the phones and email straight away. Over the course of the development of this project, I've been speaking to potential suppliers, CNC workshops and small engineering companies to make sure they're ready for a lot of orders, in a very short time. Not having a shed full of exotic computer controlled manufacturing machines is a major downside, but neither have many people, so I've had to adopt a 'real world' approach to getting some of the components that we'll be using made up. As part of the 'behind the scenes' and documentation footage (as well as cheeky Facebook and Twitter pics!), I'll be in the workshops actually programming and setting most of the machines that mill, drill, shape, extrude, turn, cut, spin or, in any other way, make the piece of Dalek that you see me assembling at Dalek Building HQ - Otherwise known as the TARDIS - Time And Relative Dimension In Shed.
It's a shame that my shed doesn't warp space and time, as I've only got just under two months to fully complete the project before the actual date of the 50th anniversary itself. If there's any delays, or batch work to be done, this is quite a dynamic plan and I can ask the companies involved for a little help or person power too, but taking out any possibilities of any hold ups, you'll be watching me do the lot.
The components that I won't be making and ordering in, like DC motors, motor gearboxes, electrical components, wheels (take a look at the video - wow) etc, will be ordered within the first few hours of the project going live. I've ordered some bits from around the world, in theme with the nature of this unique international project, so I'm hoping getting the orders in as soon as I can will minimize the risk any post delays could potentially have. Once I've got parts of Dalek ready to be assembled to each other, it's time to fire the webcams up and get down to business - making the first ever Dalek of this specification.
In between all of the stages, I'll be uploading pictures to the social media networks, along with as many updates as you can take time to read. This project is so different to anything that's already been done, I can't wait to start sharing each and every little update with each and every one of you!
This is far from an exhaustive list, but contains most of the core pieces. If we achieve our target, there's some great items I'd like to add from the Stretch Goal section too!
- 10" Heavy duty Mecanum Wheels - Awesome devices that can move the robot in ANY direction - left, right, forwards, backwards, diagonal and rotational!
- 50mm Mechanical Iris, cable drive, RGB LED and 12v servo - for a hyper-detailed eye
- Powerful display Laser
- Laser Beam Expander - takes a small strong beam and make it much wider, but less powerful, and safe.
- 24v BLDC Drive Motors & Gearboxes
- 24v BLDC Drive Motor Controllers
- 12v Smaller Geared DC Motors
- 12v Linear Actuators of varying stroke length and stroke speed
- 12v Touchscreen LCD Monitors - at least two for the internal dashboard and control screens
- Mini-ITX Quad-Core PC, 16gb RAM, SSD Hard Drive - running Windows, IIS and SQL Server!
- USB I/O Boards for controlling the electrics from a PC with digital and analogue inputs as well as outputs
- USB Full HD Camera Modules, front & back, for live video streaming but not recording - Privacy is paramount and it's a very important point to get over right from the start
- USB WiFi Card or dongle, as fast as possible
- DC Powered Network Router & decent Firewall software - an understated but unavoidable must!
- Voice Ring Modulator & Sound to Light module - the device used to create the Daleks unique voice and flash it's lights in-time to the words
- 200w Stereo Amplifier and capable speakers
- DC to DC stabilised power supplies
- Automotive PC power supply
- Deep Cycle Batteries - quite a few!
- Pneumatic or lightweight hydraulic rams - at least three of two different sizes
- Remote safety/kill switch
- Sound absorption material - quite a few types
- Small CO2 Fire Extinguisher, braided pipe, T-junctions, fogger nozzles and 12v high pressure solenoid valve
Building the robot, as well as fitting the mechanical control devices is only half of the project - the other 50% is a true geek-fest of code with my favourite programming language: Visual Basic and the .Net Framework. Below is a non-exhaustive list of what exactly needs controlling or coding to get the Dalek moving under its own steam, and shouting insane orders at people
- Directional Control - Physically moving the Dalek around using it's four wheel drive Mecanum wheels. Forward, back, left, right, diagonal as well as rotational movement, using a combination of motor direction and current levels. This will be interfaced locally or remotely, by someone sitting inside of the robot with joysticks and touchscreen monitors, or over the internet from any location with a PC, keyboard and mouse
- Eye Control - Y Axis - Up and Down, Iris size, RGB LED colour and intensity
- Head Control - X Axis - left to right
- Plunger/Laser arms - X, Y & Z Axis - Up, Down, Left, Right, In/Out and On/Off
- Entry/Exit hatch - Open and Closed
There's a couple of things that I've budgeted in, just to improve the quality of the documentation and the webcam/live video feeds, as well as saving a little bit of time and money in the long run
- Rented Web Server - Windows 2008, this will host the project website, but will also function as an excellent base to relay the live video feeds from, for the amount it costs to use a couple of the streaming video websites for a month, I could lease a server for two - a no-brainer that gives the project an excellent new set of resources for very little cash
- Windows Media Encoder - This will take the live video from my not so quick internet connection (I live in the sticks but still get 6Mb/s!), and relay it to the web server
- Windows Media Services 2008 - This will live on the web server, and takes the data from the incoming Windows Media Encoder feed, where the web servers massive high speed data links help make the video as accessible as possible, which is a much better option that 10,000 people trying to download the same feed from my backwoods 'string and two tin cans' internet connection, and I'll get some of my bandwidth back too :)
Cool workshop machinery to be used
I'm used to (and love!) working on, as well as programming each of the machines listed below, but may need help from an appropriate adult with the last one - Welding something beautifully is an art in itself.
- CNC Laser Cutter - 5 Axis
- CNC Milling Machine - 4 Axis
- CNC Lathe
- CNC Wire Erosion Machine
- CNC Metal Spinning Machine - precisely made hemispheres!
- CNC Press Brakes
- TIG Welding Equipment
Propulsion System - Four wheel drive
The Dalek will have a very special 4 Wheel Drive system using heavy duty Mecanum Wheels - which would enable it to move around in any direction, just as a Dalek should. I first saw these wheels on a high tech fork lift truck a few years ago and instantly became awe struck at the thought of plonking a Dalek on top of them at some point. Take a look at the video below for a more detailed demonstration of what they can do, and how they work, the best part of the video starts about ten seconds in...
See what i mean? Perfect for the job! Imagine a Dalek sitting on top of them. The image below shows the wheel in a little more detail. Our wheels will be 254mm in diameter, and will be able to support 250Kg each, and functions a bit like how an Archimedes Screw does on some boats and watercraft, but on land.
Entry & Exit
Getting in and out of it must be a painless experience, and suited to a wide range of peoples heights and builds, so an easy way to get in, and a lightweight, adjustable seating system has to be used to comfortably house whoever's inside for however long they're in it.
Looking through original photos of the TV shows Daleks, the operators generally had to step into the neck section with stepladders and then just jump in, or the studio crew would 'build' the Dalek up around them in sections. That sounds like a bit of a fuss to me, so we'll use hydraulic or pneumatic pistons to open, close and hold the position of the large rear door, again, taking inspiration from the automotive world who've got this pretty much down to a tee.
Laser Beam Specification
As part of the 'sound & light' package, the Dalek needs some real horsepower. I've chosen to use a high powered laser that you'd normally find inside of nightclub laser arrays, and mate it with a 'laser beam expander', to increase the diameter of the beam to something that, in the right conditions (not bright sunlight, a dark or misty environment would be fantastic), would be quite realistic, and as-near-as to the effect on TV as possible. Just like any high powered light source, staring straight into it is never a good idea, so a software AND hardware 'safety catch' is a quite a prerequisite. Putting the laser beam through the expander, and dividing the light into more of an area, just like nightclub laser machines do, also gives us the benefit of effectively reducing the output or strength of the light to a much safer level. No one should catch on fire, at least..
Sound & Light
The Dalek will have be fitted with a Voice Ring Modulator, with an input for the Dalek operators microphone, and also the computers audio output. This is exactly the same device that's been used on TV throughout the shows history, and also controls the lights on the Dalek's head, flashing in-time to the speech. The sound will be pumped through a 200w stereo speaker setup mounted in the head section of the Dalek, but there is the chance of upgrading this to a 1500w 5.1 system with a thundering bass speak and amp if we unlock that specific Stretch Goal - See the Stretch Goals section below for more details of this extremely noisy and antisocial unlockable addition!
Touchscreen Display & Joysticks
Programming the Dalek to move around in a series of manoeuvres, or piloting the Dalek remotely over the internet is only half the fun (some may say 66%), but there's no denying it, actually being inside of the Dalek and controlling it manually would be something very special indeed. To help with the task, the operator would only need to tap on a couple of touch screen displays to switch between modes, operate the stalks or to communicate with the outside world with an irate metallic voice, but I'm sure I've also seen somewhere (Range Rovers *coughs*) that using the screens to easily switch between multiple HD camera displays would be a neat touch too. With all of the ancillaries controlled by computer through an easy to use touchscreen screen interface, all that's left to do is control the Dalek's movement with a joystick or two... I'm toying with the idea of using a PlayStation controller, but there's some drop dead gorgeous Jet Fighter joysticks that I've seen that are just begging to be plumbed in.. they've even got a fire button. the final budget dictates that choice!
Yes, Zombies. I love Zombies, expect to see a few pop up in the odd video or two...
Stretch Goal One: +£1,000 - Documentation Equipment Upgrade
There are a few extra items to make the workshop camera setup into something a little more substantial. If we manage to unlock this goal, one camera will become several of higher quality, a selection of better lights will be installed and a microphone upgrade would be worthwhile too.
Stretch Goal Two: +£2,500 - Battery Charger Additions
Currently we've got two battery chargers, and close to ten batteries of multiple size, shape and strength. This upgrade would buy at least three high power chargers that would enable (almost) F1 type battery pitstop manoeuvres. Maybe that was a small exaggeration, but it would mean the Dalek would charge up fully in less than 24hrs, rather than a few days.
Stretch Goal Three: +£3,500 - 5.1 Sound System / Power Upgrade
I've budgeted a 200w stereo system and amp into the original project budget, but being over funded this amount would allow the Dalek to easily scare people from much, much further away with over 1500 watts of angry metallic voice. Five times the power and at least five speakers, two high frequency, two mid, and one big subwoofer - a great upgrade for very little money!
Stretch Goal Four: +£15,000 - Build Material Upgrade
Full. Titanium. Dalek. Those three words make me shudder. If we break through this target, forget Stainless Steel, everything you see will be made completely from Titanium. It's almost criminal to paint over it, but wow, how amazing would it look inside?!? Robocop/Fighter Jet/Dalek. Wow. A great upgrade, but totally impossible without people-power.
Stretch Goal Five: +£50,000 upwards? - Custom Transport Addition!
OK. We're getting into silly money now. If, together, we reach this target, I'll create a custom van to carry the Dalek around in, at Dalek HQ and in full view of the project documentation webcams, after the Dalek has been built. Inspired by the UNIT vehicles throughout the TV series, and also Torchwood too, one of these ex-MOD armoured vehicles would be a great place to start. It ticks all of my boxes - a throaty V8 petrol engine that could be made louder, it's already modified to carry a lot of extra weight, it's built to survive a riot (not bad against zombies too I'd bet!) and would not look out of place with flashing blue lights, UNIT logos, or a few extra Dalek hemispheres and a tail lift welded on it either...
Thank you to Witham Specialist Vehicles Ltd for letting me use the images above, I'm glad you appreciated the bizarre phone call, it made me laugh too. All I need now is a little bit of a discount please! It's amazing what you can buy from the MOD Sales website, take a look!
Risks and challenges
Being a prototype engineer has really given me the confidence to not only get the task done, but to do it right and to a high standard from the ground up. I've worked on many different projects over the years, and have recently worked in the teams producing some truly amazing vehicles that won't be hitting the roads until 2017 - My finger is on the pulse of British engineering and I want to bring this make this project happen more than I can find the words to describe - Any technical problem would be overcome.
If the very worst happened and I found myself in a situation where I needed another viewpoint, help or advice, I'm surrounded by a safety net of world class engineers that to be quite frank, I'm having to beat away from the project with a large stick as-it-is. Any problem would become a shared problem, and a shared problem would be quickly solved.
Having this support mitigates most of the risks and challenges I may face with each individual section of the project, but doesn't eliminate unscripted events that can affect any project such as postage delays or lazy suppliers not getting the components to you in time, but clear communication, ordering things a little before you actually need them, and a little bit of common sense goes a long way.
Another risk is potential copyright issues, so I've been very very thoughtful with this, and very respectful. I wouldn't like my work being ripped off, or made a mockery of or defiled in any way, and none of the copyright holders below have anything to worry about with their hard earned work - it's in safe hands.
All Dalek © BBC and Terry Nation.
Original Doctor Who theme music by Murray Gold © Murray Gold & Warner Chappell
Doctor Who Metal Theme © Gazz Rogers
Jaguar picture © Jaguar Land Rover
Armoured Vehicle pictures © Witham Specialist Vehicles Ltd
YouTube Meccanum wheel © Anny Kong & YouTube
Laser Beam pictures © Wicked Lasers
Thank you to everybody that's helped out with this project so far, there are quite a few names to mention, and they will be listed and praised on the main project website once it launches, but I'd really like to thank Lou, Gazz, Damien, Paul, Fay, Andy, Paul and Nathan for being there for for me when I was putting this together, and helping out with some really crazy requests, often at short notice, and often at 04:00 in the morning when they were asleep.
And finally, I'd like to thank my Mom, for always being there, for buying me a 48k Spectrum instead of a game console when I was younger, and for inspiring me to pursue my technical interests from a very early age - thank you.
Now let's start bashing some metal!Learn about accountability on Kickstarter
- (25 days)