What tips do you have for making a great project video on a limited budget?
Can you point to any favorite videos that inspired you, or resources that helped you make yours?
We asked some creators from our Publishing category for their advice on this, and collected them in this short video.
- Keep it 2-3 minutes. Attention span is low, and everyone has a threshold for how long they'll pay attention (or can pay attention before the manager comes to look over their shoulder). The opening moments will have the backers judging your video and deciding if they want to keep going, so try and hook them early.
- Focus on audio quality. If you don't have a microphone and have to use the in-camera audio, then get the camera as close to you as it can. You can kill audio bounce by hanging a blanket behind the camera. A cheap solution is getting a Zoom H4n (or whatever device that works as a microphone/recorder itself) and holding it in your hand just beneath the frame. Also, make sure where you're shooting isn't riddled with background noises.
- Shoot near a window. As a filmmaker, I use a light kit, but for the natural look, I tend to just shoot near a window so the soft, diffused light can look good and natural. Just be careful to keep continuity on days where the sun peeks out from behind the clouds while you're filming. It's a cheap way to look well lit.
- Find the line between informational/inspirational. Some people pitch the big picture without satisfying the detail-oriented people. Some people focus on the nitty gritty without explaining why they're running the Kickstarter.
- Be fun. Not all campaigns can focus on this, but I'm more likely to keep watching if I'm entertained. I want to like you and if I like you, I'll be more likely to support you.
- Tell a story. Lastly, let the backers in on why you're doing this, and give them a sense of the origin story if it's interesting. These people are being invited to be on the ground floor of something cool, and as long as you don't come off as needy, a fun relationship can form between creator and backer.
Most of those have no impact on the budget, but are important to get right.
Camera: Borrow a friends Digital SLR Camera; don't record on your phone. Your iPad will probably be enough, but make sure it's steady, no free-cam. We shot on this; both video and photos.
Video Editing Software: ($60) CyberLink Power Director and edit it yourself. Don't edit on Microsoft software. ...please.
Photo Editing Software: (free) http://www.gimp.org/ (used for ALL of our Graphic Design for a $72 board game that weighs over 5lbs - That's a lot of graphic design.)
Sounds & Music & Backgrounds (Free - moderate quality/selection): http://www.videoblocks.com/
Professional Music & Theme Songs (100% Professional quality): http://audiojungle.net/
Artists: (Various pricing) These you have to find yourself, but this will help you if you need custom art for reasonable prices (Your company or product logo, perhaps?)
General Tips for video:
- Appear yourself. You must introduce yourself, even if ever-so-briefly.
- Keep it short. 3 minutes is way more than enough. You don't think so right now, but it is. This is to budget your time.
- Tell us what your product is, why it's great, and don't apologize for anything.
- Know that most people don't watch it before at least scrolling down and back up your page once. It doesn't need to contain everything just because it's at the top. It is supplemental, but necessary.
- Ask a friend, or a friend of a friend if they can help. Got a buddy with a youtube channel? Ask for tips, equipment, or if they'll shoot for you for $100. This silly promo video was shot and edited by a friend, in his studio, for a friendly $100 stipend. It's not 1000% perfect, but it for an extra promo video that we had some fun making...? That's just great! Plus they had special effect skills (and a green screen!) that we didn't. Something we can leverage again in the future.
- Be honest.
- Be yourself.
- Remember, your sense of humor may not be everyone's, so keep that limited unless you're sure you're funny and are going all out with it.
- Don't make racial or religious jokes. A friend recently put a girl in a nun costume in his video with some nun jokes. He failed. He now realizes his attempt at innocent and friendly jokes were not that to many many backers. Oops.
- As much as you can, let the video feature your genre's skill. Board Games? Be creative. - Dance? Let's see! - Journalism? It should have decent script. - Food? Show us what you've cooked! - Film....? Oh you better rock! : )
- Your video quality should be roughly proportionate to your funding goal and genre. If you're asking for $500,000+ for a video game, you better be able to make a kicking video! On the other hand, if you're asking for $400 for your home embroidery skills... well, people understand that your video is gonna ...um... stink. : P
- Your ultimate goal: Don't scare anyone off, while informing them. If you have the power to lock them in at the same time, great! But don't, as they say in the acting business, "try too hard". Natural and showing your genre's talents is good.
Also, read the tips above and below from other creators, they're great also!
Proprietor of The Kickstarter Advice Columns Blog
From a content standpoint be different from everyone else, or as much like yourself as possible. The crazy different stuff about you is what people are attracted to, it's your story remember, own it. Plan out what you're going to say in bullet form but don't script your performance. Reading from or memorizing a script will make you appear unnatural or worse yet insincere. Try and keep things under 3 minutes, it's generally the maximum attention span most people have for video on the Internet.
From a production standpoint whatever camera you have access to is fine, even a webcam is good, I made an entire career off the camera built into my laptop. Record yourself during the day near a window (make sure the window is NOT behind you). If possible get a cheap usb microphone so that the fan from your computer isn't all people can hear.
Have fun, there's a reason Jimmy Fallon was the least talented comedian on SNL but ended up with the most successful career. Sure he laughed during every sketch he was ever in but his fallibility was human and likeable! Don't be afraid to fail, embrace it!
Like everyone else I watched loads of videos too... Then I stood in front of the camera and tried to do mine! Ick!
I coped out and went with a slide show instead and did a voice over. Then I showed it to my friends and they liked it! The comments I got were mostly along the lines of "it's cute" and "it's you", so yeah maybe next time I will do it differently but from what I learned I'd say
Be positive (even if you think you're being funny sarcasm and dark wit can turn people off)
It doesn't need to be fancy, I got 378% funded with a slightly clunky slide show, but it was cute and it was me!
- Three minutes or under.
- Invite one or two people you respect and who know you well to come to the filming. They can give you feedback along the way; telling you to retake things, that you're looking too stiff, etc. And, most importantly, they'll see when you've hit your stride and are finally coming across like yourself, which is arguably the goal of any Kickstarter video. Don't pay a team of 'pros' to direct you; rely on one or two people who know you well to give you direction at the shoot.
Shoot the video where you are most comfortable and where you can film for free. I chose to shoot outdoors at a park because that's where I feel most like myself. Are you more comfortable in your home office? Shoot it at your desk. Your childhood home? Go there. Be comfortable in your environment because that will help you come across naturally, and find a location where you can shoot for free.
Enlist friends to help. A Kickstarter campaign is hopefully your "big ask" in life. Now is the time to ask a friend to edit. Have a writer friend help you with the script.
A Kickstarter video is a commercial. Commercials are short, tell you what they are and what they're for quickly, and the good ones are memorable. You can go whole hog and break out the video editing software and soundtrack music, but I've see people successfully fulfill that criteria with a phone camera.
Like everyone else is saying, keep it short. Don't ramble! Not only will no one stay and watch to the end, but it will make you look like a flake. I try to keep my videos under two minutes, and even then only 75% of people stay until the end. Unless you are SPECTACULARLY FUNNY and absolutely NEED that four to six minutes to finish your skit (I'm thinking of the vids for the DoubleFine games and the film What We Do in the Shadows, here), don't let things drag.
Make sure the content of the video reflects your Kickstarter. If your KS is for a CD of music, include your music in the video. If it's for art, include some of your work. If it's for a video game, include some in-engine gameplay. You'd be amazed who doesn't think to do this. Prove you know what you're doing!
Be specific, not abstract. I wince when I see people in videos say things like "This has always been my dream." No to be cruel, but.... so? We all have dreams. Heck, most Kickstarter projects could say they're someone's dream. What sets you apart? What are your relevant accomplishments? Why should I believe you're capable of this? Is this something you can actually do? Does the world need this? Convince me!
Best summary I can give:
- Unless you have some serious CGI or are a major studio, keep it under 1:00
- Make sure the creator is in the video at some point
- Don't talk about the money
- Don't talk about yourself (just name and what you made
- Talk about the project
- Sound enthusiastic
- Have a script memorized and keep it to one idea per sentence
- Have a tripod (event if it is just a pop bottle with a wedge cut out of the top to hold a smart phone.
Hope this helps and all the best on your project
Get outside of the box! For me, I felt like I was a bit constrained when it came time to create the video for my project. Like Mike Spence, I also watched a ton of videos. It was good to watch a lot because it gave me a feel for what I should include, but bad because my gear and skills are not as good as many of the other videos that I seen. I just focused on what I feel like I can do well and did my best with the rest.
There is a lot of great info on this thread, but I am not seeing anyone talk about the message. Yes, you want a video with a good tempo. Yes, you will want the best audio and video quality that you can muster. But none of that matters if your are not clear with the message you are trying to convey. Be clear, concise and HAVE FUN! For me, those qualities made the best creator videos.
Use what you have and put your heart into it.
When I made my last video, I took an entire day dedicated to watching Kickstarter videos and made notes on what I liked and didn't like.
- What I wanted the tempo of the video to be
- Where to include humor
- How to break-up the sections into parts (a question, introduction, describe what I'm making, the bigger mission, etc).
- Eye contact (with the camera!) is crucial you need people to feel connected to you and your project.
- Appear in it yourself, makes the whole project personal, doesn't have to be for long but it gives people an insight into who you are and that you're real (and probably passionate about what you do).
- Keeping it short- as others have said above.. sub 3 minutes if possible, very few people watch even that far and on that point make sure you get the gist of what you're doing into the first 30 seconds as that is the optimum time the majority of people watch for and you need to hook them in!
- Put some humour in there, we did some daft things that illustrated why our bag was better than what is out there and people responded well to it.
- Be clear about what you're asking for and why.
I watched a tonne of other people's videos. My favourites were funny, colourful and clear about what the project was about.
I however spent too much time on making them funny, and should have probably cut them down to about 3-4 minutes. My 8 min vids rarely got more than 10 % of people watching them all the way through.
Impact right at the start! Make it so the audience doesn't want to switch to the next vid
I think if your 'limited budget' is around zero then try and do a DIY job in iMovie.
Keep if bright, upbeat and to the point. I've just launched my 6th kickstarter and what I've found is my audience enjoy the stopmotion, simple videos that clearly explain my project. But make sure you DO do a video. The 2 projects that failed didn't have videos, the 4 that met the goal had videos... that's enough evidence for me to at least consider my limited options when it comes to making a video.
Before launch I tried to do a video of me talking to the camera, but the amount of effort it took to have even barely decent enough kit, learn a script, get the lighting right, get the sound right, get a friend to edit the final thing - it just wasn't worth it for what I could do in a couple of hours using photoshop and iMovie.
Saying that it's all relative, if you're asking for $1M, your video has to look a million dollars. If you're asking for a few hundred to get a small scale personal idea off the ground, an audience will appreciate a low-fi solution.
It's how people react after watching 10 second of the video that matters the most. Go for small budget videos with high impact. Make something that makes people laugh or nostalgic or silly. By the way, there are great success stories where the videos were the complete opposite. So, know that it's the product that matters the most and video is just good to have.
My tip would be to pool your resources and use technology and formats that you're comfortable with. I often use iMovie for video editing. It's a free and very straightforward program for editing image and sound. You can even use it to create a video from still images and voice over which could be a good solution if a creator doesn't have a camera. We looked at a lot of different creator videos before we made ours. And we chose one that seemed effective and realistic given our time and resources.
I have read the comments. With some I agree, with others I don't. Our own project which will start soon is all about speaking to the camera and creating a great video. I can say I know what I am talking about.
With 'problems' like this you start at the top and work your way through.
You are on kickstarter. I expect you to have a great product that you are passionate about and solves a 'real problem' people have. You should really believe in this project. Your whole campaign should reflect this. Passion. Problem. Solution. Happy again.
The goal is to convince as many people as possible to back the project. And your video is one of the means. Use this opportunity to the max!
Kickstarter is not a shop or marketplace. Your video is NOT a commercial. I repeat: your...video...is...not...a...commercial.
They have a lot in common with normal commercials but there is a fundamental difference. In commercials your basic focus is mostly on the product. There is no real question about who the creators are, if the have the money, and expertise, if they can be trusted, if they are liked, if they will deliver. The product exists, you can simply buy it. With kickstarter things are different. You can not buy the product yet. Backers need to be convinced to back you. Order to do 'business' with you people need to know you, like you, trust you. Make sure this all becomes clear n your video.
There needs to be trust They need to know you. They need to be told about the problem. They want to know why you are driven to solve it. Why you are qualified. Who is this guy? what is the background? will he deliver? is his solution really a good one? A kind of story about you and the product.
A slick commercial doesn't work well on kickstarter. Would you back a product where in the video it they are just pushing you to buy the product. Where you don't know the team behind it , background information, and get the impression they have enough money to produce and sell it already. Then why the heck are they on Kickstarter?
That doesn't mean you don't need other aspects used in commercials. A clear story, good audio, good video. And you need to entertain the viewer. Otherwise they stop watching. You are telling a story to convince people. Camera movement, the whole story. The music. Everything should back your story about why you started it, what problem it solves why you are asking them to back you and what is in it for them. And this whole process is driven by emotion. Generally speaking: emotion sells. Not logic. The logic is the second part. After viewers get a real good feeling: this product is great, it will really help me with a problem I am having, I trust the person, he will deliver on his promises' they check the facts. And here they are looking for everything that strengthens their emotional feelings they had when seeing your video. So make sure you have good audio and music. (we all remember how music takes us back to special moments from our past. If you close your eyes you are really reliving that past moment)
So make sure viewers experience emotion when seeing your video. Show situations where your 'problem' exists'. Show people having this problem. Show the solution. Show people beging happy with the solution. Show how you came up with the solution and worked really hard to get there. Show how in the end this really is the best solution and backers would do well if they back your product.
And what better way to get emotion in your video than showing people. Remember, ' only people convince people':
You really should be in the video yourself. Viewers want to see you, know you, see if they like you, they want to trust you. So...speak to them directly. Look straight in the camera and at the viewers. Don't look at the side on an iPad and read the tekst. This is no interview or documentary. You see it often but this is poor understanding of how to make great video. Really look them in the eyes and tak to them...convince them. This is your moment. Make use of it! Show them how much you care about them, your viewers and how you want to solve a problem they have. How this will change everything for them and make things really better.
Sometimes creators hire an actor. In this case creators themselves are camera shy and feel uncomfortable. If you really really can't get over it then let someone els do the presentation and talking. But: make sure you are still in the video, even if only for a short moment. Make sure viewers understand that you / your team are the actual creators. Talk about the problem and the solution. Maybe even a few technical details. Viewers will immediately understand you are not the best actors. Not too comfortable in front of the camera. But this is no problem in this case. They will see you as the geeks behind the project and label you as nice, honest (although a bit weird and nerdy) but really qualified to develop the product and deliver. Don't go for the pitfall where there are only actors or other people in the video not directly related to the project and development. Or worse, no people at all. Prepare for the shoot. Memories your lines. Take care of how you want to come across (casual, nerdy, formal). Haircut even. Simply make sure you are giving the impression you want to give. And then: accept who you are. Old, young, bald, long hair. Whatever. We all get older, gain weight, look different and strange on video (we think) You have prepared well, dressed up. Now forget about it for a few minutes and het in the story. I repeat: FORGET ABOUT IT. People won't judge you like you do yourself. They will notice if you are still showing you are still worrying about it. So: forget about if, if only for a few minutes. Best works if you are passionately talking about your project!
Your text: short and clear but still natural. Stay on track. Body language in line with what you are saying. Don't use your hands to much. A common mistake.
While sitting behind a desk is difficult to come up with proper lines. Better: Go to a stimulating place. Maybe the centre of a city, might be too countryside. Maybe the university campus. Whatever works for you. Don't sit still. Stand up, walk around with another project member. That way you are relaxed and can still focus on the project and what you want to say in a natural way. Talk about what you want to say. About how you really feel about the project and product. Passionate. While still walking, standing. sitting, getting up again. Record these sentences (smartphone) while walking. Or write them down but this takes you out of the flow. Go home or to your office and play read/ play back the words. From these words create the actual text. Actual shorter sentences, proper words, logic order. There you have your basic tekst. Passionate and clear. Heart and the head. Emotion and logic.
The main takeaway: emotion sells, only people convince people, and look straight at the viewers.
Make sure the video is 'entertaining enough' to watch. No long and boring shots. make sure to change monologes with product shots, video from happy users of the prototype etcetera.
Wel, for the actual equipment: learning editing takes time. Lighting equipment costs money as does other equipment. Some investment is generally necessary. But cheap solutions are using a smartphone. So:
Everyday think about and look around for proper locations and shots. Simply put: prepare. Shoot outside or in a room with a lot of glass. If indoors make sure the room is quite large. Maybe a hallway or large reception area with glass. Look for an interesting background, not to close to the actor. There should be several meters of room to convey a feeling of 'room' Pay attention on where the light comes from at which time of the day! Clear skies is great but be careful with direct sunlight on the actor. Use a phone with a real good camera and a special video app to lock the white balance. Make sure you have tried it and know how it works. Buy/rent a cheap tripod that can be extended high enough (1.7 m). Buy a cheap smartphone adapter (like the ones on the end of a selfie stick). Mount it on the tripod and mount the smartphone. Use an external microphone (echoing sound like you are in a bathroom or hallway really ruins your video). That can be a rode but also a cheap lavalier with a long wire (audio technica for example). With the right (and inexpensive) equipment you can connect these to a smartphone and record sound separately. Soot the video. Shoot lots of video. Shoot from different angles. Shoot close ups and from further away. That way you have enough material. Edit the video. Imovie works great. Make a logic order. Change colors and whit balance/exposure with the software a bit. Often there are simple buttons to automatically adjust this.Zoom in on the subject if you need them to be closer. Import the separately recorded voice track and put it at the right sport underneath the video track (= synchronize).
good luck with your video!
I recommend going to Behance.net and looking for someone who has done videos before that you like. Be very careful when finding someone to tell your story. Almost everybody with a camera thinks they are a Director. Almost everybody who has a Facebook account, has used Twitter before ... thinks they could be a social media expert. Just be careful - don't get too caught up in the words - but look at the actions. If you have a great idea - you can find someone to do your video on a limited budget and in fact those are the kind of people you should be working with anyway - UNLESS of course - you are like Michael Jackson and can afford to go out and hire John Landis to do a video like Thriller - but if that is the case - you wouldn't be reading this would you. Just be smart - do the video yourself if you have to - simply tell your own story and if your own story is strong enough - you will be able to get the word out about your vision. If your first stab at crowd-funding doesn't work - then do it again. For every single song-writer who has a hit - they have another fifty songs nobody has ever even heard except their family and true friends. Stick with your dream and you will somehow make it happen.
As a filmmaker, I know editing is critical and a brutal process, but I agree on keeping it under 3 minutes. I made my video with a very low budget because I had no crew, and I relied a lot on sticking to an outline of what I wanted to communicate, you could even do a quick storyboard or timeline to make sure you don't stay stuck on one visual or one point for too long. I recommend using cheap stock photos that you can license and keeping the pace of the video moving so it doesn't drag.
Lots of great comments here. I've learned a few things from what has been said, even after creating 10 projects.
A video should be entertaining, but also explain why I want the reward or will love the project. I've watched too many fun videos where I didn't remember what the project was afterwards.
I try to keep my videos to 1 minute and have had success with a 32 second video (link is nsfw). This might not work for every project.
Getting feedback from friends or other creators (is there a mechanism for that here?) is a very helpful step.
I made my video with an iPad and Windows Movie Maker, so it was definitely low budget.
On top of that I'm very camera shy. I wanted to find a way appear in my video without talking to the camera, so I used voiceover. I created concept art for my project and had my brother film me playing with his Vive VR headset. I was less self-conscious playing the Vive, because the game made me forget about the camera.
Use voiceover if you're camera shy. Create concept art, take pictures, or film yourself working on your project.
Horizontal format looks better on Kickstarter than vertical.
Use natural lighting.
Use this free converted if you need to convert your video's format.
Do a lot of takes. The practice will help, and you'll be more likely to get a good one.
Here are my favorite tips on how to create a successful Kickstarter video on a budget.
1) Focus on the Content
The content is most important. Don't worry about your small production budget. Look through other Kickstarter campaign videos for inspiration. The best are emotional and tell a story.
2) Tell a StoryDon't get caught up in over complicating your idea. Try telling it like a story with a beginning, middle, and end. Talk about where the idea came from, the challenges you are going to overcome, and the outcome. Sketch this out with visuals on a rough storyboard.
3) Get Feedback EarlyAsk friends and family early for feedback on your storyboard and video concept!
4) Cover Your BasesDon't forget to include why, how, who, what, when. People need to know this info. It's easy to forget because you know everything about the project. Refer to point three on getting feedback early.
5) Write a Script or Don't [but make sure to decide]A script could help you, or it might now. If you don't have a script at least have an outline and set of questions. Have your friend read the questions and answer them back. Things like: "where did the idea come from?", "How does XYZ work?", and "how will you fulfill the project" are great to start.
6) Create a Killer HookYou have about 3-5 seconds to hook the viewer. Spend a few hours...yes hours coming up with ideas for the hook. It doesn't have to be crazy, but it needs to be compelling.
7) Credibility is Key
People are about to give you money. Make sure they can trust you. Put your face in the video. Testimonials or a proof of concept is an excellent way to build trust.
8) Put a Call to Action at the End
This seems obvious but don't forget to remind them to back you at the end of the video.
9) Don't Worry About the Camera
You can use your phone for the camera but if you are going to spend money buy a tripod. There is a great Wistia tutorial on how to shoot video with your phone: https://wistia.com/library/shooting-video-with-an-iphone
9.5) BUT MAKE SURE TO BUY A MICROPHONE
As Ryan mentioned in his answer, make sure to focus on great audio. A microphone is necessary. If you are shooting on your phone, you can find microphones on Amazon for less than $25.
10) Don't Spend a Ton of Money on Editing SoftwareRemember to keep the entire video concept simple. This will allow you to do less work in editing. There should be free software on your computer. Just use that.
11) Use the Rule of Thirds
If you have no experience with photo or video, you should use the rule of thirds to frame your shots. There are some quick tutorials online.
12) Shoot in Order If possible shoot the video in order. This will just make things easy for editing.
13) Use Free Music
If you want a low budget video, then you can't have expensive music. There are a few good sources for royalty free music. Check Free Music Archive to start.
14) Choose a Great ThumbnailYou went through all the work of creating a video. Make sure people click on it! The thumbnail is the image they see before clicking play. Make sure it's awesome!
15) Keep it Short
There are tons of questions about this on the forum. For video shorter is better. I would agree with Ryan to keep it between 2-4 minutes. Remember the longer it is the fewer people will finish, and the more time it will take to shoot.
I pulled most of these tips from a longer article I wrote. If you are looking for more detail or more tips, I would check it out. You will learn how to make your own kickstarter video.
Quick question: my sister and I are about to start a Kickstarter project together, she lives in Paris and I live in Austin Texas.
We have decided that she should do a video in French and I should speak in English. In your opinion would it be better to have a combined video or do we do 2, one in French and one in English?
We have connections all over the world, and would like to reach people globally to get more backers.
Thanking you in advance.
For our first project we tried filming me talking about the project. I hated it. I am not an actress and I can't stand the sound of my own voice. The whole process was very frustrating. I ended up using PowerPoint to make our video. It includes a couple of short videos and some animations, all set to music. The video isn't slick and professional but it got our message across and people seemed to like it. If you have a small project and a small budget, people don't expect an expensive professional video.
I'm not an expert by any means, but here's what I used in my videos:
1) iPhone 6S
2) Adobe Premier Pro CC (no upfront payment...you can pay monthly)
3) Canon EOS M for 24FPS filming ($200-$250 with kit lenses)
4) Rode Microphone (you can pick your favorite vlogger and see what they use)
5) Edited my first two videos with Windows Movie Maker
6) Build a cheap light box with instructions on net (PVC and White Sheets)
Until you can afford to hire a professional, this should be more than enough.
Hope that helps...
I haven't got great equipment but I have a camera and a computer. I've used Windows Moviemaker for my very short video and uploaded it to youtube where I was able to add music from their library.
Loving all of these tips! We pulled a few of them into this video that we made recently. It's a full rundown on how you can make a project video using things you probably already have at home. Let me know what you think. :)
I learned how to make a documentary film at university - they taught the theory, they showed us movies and clips. I learned acting. I cannot point out any favorite video, I saw so many films. Resources, yes, there are favorites, when I refer to the story. Fotography, yes, I remember some. I simply watch and ask myself what I want to tell, and what I want to express. In the beginning, I assume, it needs experimenting with topics and movements (i. e. dance), or finding out on how to film a communicating round of people (wherever). These video - filmic - visual notes serve as basis for developing new ideas, takes and techniques (angles, lights). There's a TV station here, where they offer courses in interviewing, camera, etc. - Watching is a good thing to perceive a feeling for the essence of a moving picture, the central impact it should have and how to learn how to deliver inspirational entertainment or information (in all sense) to the audience.
What tips do you have for making a great project video on a limited budget?
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